How does a self-balancing scooter work?

ByGB Blog Official 2016-11-07 3476

Many of people have been bothering about the problem: how does self-balancing scooter work? So here we are going to have a brief explanation.

First, let’s take a look at the structure of the hoverboard.

Inside the shell, there are many other components, which are of much importance for the scooter. In general, a hoverboard features the following main components:

● A solid frame with a central pivot

● A control board

● Two sensor board / gyroscopes

● Two infrared sensors

● Two electric motors (located inside the wheels)

● Two tilt / speed sensors (located inside the wheels)

● Charging port

● Power switch

● A battery pack

● LED lights

● Pressure pads / Non-slip pedals

● A plastic shell


Next, let’s take a look at how these components work.

The Wheel Sensor

The wheels of the hoverboard house the electric motors themselves. They also contain a tilt and speed sensor. This detects the rpm (revolutions per minute) of the individual wheel, and sends it to the gyroscope and speed control boards, located inside the main body, right next to the wheels.


The gyroscopes and speed control boards receive the rpm and tilt information from the sensor inside the wheels, and they, in turn, send it to the control board .

Control Board

The control board, or the main logic board is the “brain” of your hoverboard, and it’s where the processor computes in real time the status of the board, the speed at which you are traveling, and the relative speed and tilt of the individual wheels.

It also controls the power management of the board, and whether you are in beginner mode (thereby limiting the max speed of the board) or if the scooter is locked.

Battery Pack

The battery pack is what keeps your board going. There are different packs out there, but the vast majority of them are 36V / 48V 4400mAH Lithium-ion battery packs.

Therefore, the tilt sensors in the wheels tell the gyroscopes how far forward you are leaning. The gyroscopes relay this information to the logic board. The more you are leaning forward, the faster the control board tells the motors to spin, to sort of catch up with your center of gravity. It is this simple yet clever mechanism which allows you to control the cruising speed of the scooter with your weight.  

Now that you know how they work, why don’t you head over to our platform to find a proper self-balancing scooter for yourself?


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