ByLinky Johnson 2018-12-05 287
The best light source in nature is the sun, which has been adapted by human beings for thousands of years. Therefore, it is generally believed that the closer the light is to the sun, the better. Generally, there are three parameters to judge whether the light is suitable: illumination, color temperature and color rendering index.
Lux is used to describe the brightness of light, i.e. the owner's most concerned thing: "whether our lights are bright enough". The specific value can be measured by an illuminometer.
Don't think that high power means high brightness, because different types of lamps have different luminous efficiency, such as 8W LED lamps and 40W incandescent lamps.
Family commonly used illumination: porch, storage room 100-200 Lux, living room 100-300 Lux, bedroom 100-200 Lux, work area 250-500 Lux, restaurant, kitchen, toilet 100-200 Lux.
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It refers to the color of light. Its unit is Kelvin (K), which is often referred to as yellow light, warm white light, and cold light and so on.
Above are three kinds of white light with different color temperatures. There is no standard name for this classification. Some businessmen classify them as warm yellow, warm white, natural white, etc.
The normal color temperature of various light sources is 1900K for candlelight, 2800K for incandescent lamp, 4500K for fluorescent lamp and 5400K for sunshine. The red radiation of light with low color temperature is more, that is, warm light; the blue radiation of light with high color temperature increases, that is, cold light. Use low color temperature in quiet atmosphere and high color temperature in working atmosphere. The specific values are determined according to personal preferences. In general families, 6500K is the upper limit.
It refers to the degree of color reduction of objects by light. Sunlight is 100, outdoor lighting should be more than 65, and indoor lighting should be more than 80. The light with high color rendering index is very real to the color performance; the light with low color rendering index will cause color distortion and aggravate visual fatigue seriously.
IL luminance, color temperature and color rendering index interact with each other. Under the appropriate illumination, the best sensory experience can be obtained by choosing the appropriate light with color temperature and color rendering index.
For example, bedroom lighting, when the illumination is 150 Lux, it is best to use warm white light with color temperature of 3000K. If you use yellow or white light, it will cause color too dark or distortion.
If you are afraid of trouble, just remember the following number and buy a lamp according to this. It is not wrong to buy a lamp.
The maximum color temperature of living room is not more than 5000K; dining room is not more than 3000K; bedroom is not more than 3000K, color rendering index is more than 80; working area is 3800-5000K, color rendering index is more than 90.
In addition, each person's acceptance of yellow and white light is different. Some people hate light with a color temperature of 3000k. Even if the color rendering index is high enough, it feels dark. So it's better to feel the color and temperature atmosphere of different lights in physical stores. Then make your own choice.
The tungsten wire is heated to incandescent state by electrification, and the light source of thermal radiation luminescence is used.
Its advantage is that it is close to sunlight and has a continuous spectrum. The color rendering index is above 95. The disadvantage is the low color temperature, serious power consumption, fever, short life, about 1000 hours under the working atmosphere. China has completely banned the export and sale of incandescent lamps for general lighting over 15W.
Also known as tungsten halogen bulb, quartz bulb. It is an improved version of incandescent lamp.
It not only inherits the advantages of good color rendering of incandescent lamp, but also has longer life and higher luminous efficiency than incandescent lamp.
Also known as incandescent lamp, low-pressure mercury lamp. It consists of lamp tube and inductance ballast. The mercury vapor in the lamp tube releases ultraviolet light after being electrified. The phosphor emits visible light after absorbing ultraviolet rays.
Its advantages are higher luminous efficiency than incandescent lamp; various color temperatures, long life, about 2500-3500 hours. The disadvantage is that the spectrum is discontinuous, the color rendering index is only about 85, and it takes more than 30 seconds to start to stabilize. The lamp has flickering sensation and mercury pollution.
Also known as compact fluorescent lamp and integrated fluorescent lamp, the lamp tube and electronic ballast are integrated efficiently, and the working principle is similar to fluorescent lamp.
The advantages are compact structure, small size, high luminous efficiency, 5W energy-saving lamp brightness equivalent to 25W incandescent lamp. It saves electricity and has a long life of more than 6000 hours. Its disadvantage is that the color rendering index is low and the electronic ballast is easy to be damaged.
LED is an acronym for light-emitting diodes (LEDs). It is a solid-state semiconductor device that converts electrical energy directly into light energy.
Its advantages are that it can be turned on soon. In addition, it has high brightness and is power saving. Its energy consumption is only 1/4 of that of energy-saving lamps, with a long life of more than 50,000 hours. The spectrum contains less infrared and ultraviolet rays and does not attract mosquitoes.
Its disadvantage is that the spectrum is not uniform, and the color rendering index of low quality LED lamps is especially low, even less than 50. Even outdoor requirements are not met. That's why many LED lights look dazzling, but the lighting effect is poor.
High quality LED lamp overcomes the defect of color rendering index and has become the mainstream light source. When purchasing LED lamps, we must choose a reliable brand and confirm that the color rendering index is above 80.
According to the shape and installation of lamps, there are ceiling lamp, chandelier, floor lamp, table lamp, lighting, down light, etc.
The most common type of lamps and lanterns in family decoration. As the name implies, the top of the lamp is relatively flat, and the bottom of the lamp is completely attached to the roof when it is installed, so it is called ceiling lamp.
The ceiling lamp has various shapes and is often used in the overall lighting of the living room and bedroom. The ceiling lamp with a diameter of 20 cm is suitable for walkways and bathrooms, while the ceiling lamp with a diameter of 40 cm is suitable for rooms with a diameter of not less than 16 square meters.
Ceiling lamp can use a variety of light sources, such as incandescent and fluorescent lamps. The current market mainstream is the led ceiling lamp.
The lampshade made of acrylic (Plexiglas) material is recommended. Its advantages are as high as 92% transmittance, light weight, good toughness, not easy to break, good atomization effect and glowing effect.
It is a lamp hanging under the ceiling and is dividing into single-headed chandeliers and multi-headed chandeliers. The former is mostly used in bedrooms and restaurants, while the latter is mostly used in living rooms.
The multi-head chandelier with complex shape should be used in the space with higher floor height, and the distance between the lowest point of the chandelier and the floor should be more than 2.1 meters. In duplex or jump floor, the lowest point of hall chandelier should not be lower than the second floor.
It is not recommended that the chandelier with the lampshade facing upward. Although the light source is hidden and not dazzling, there are too many shortcomings: It is easy to get dirty and gray. The lamp holder will block the light. There are often shadows under the lamp holder. The light can only be transmitted by the lamp shade and reflected by the ceiling. The efficiency of the lamp holder is low.
When choosing multi-head chandeliers, the number of lamp heads is generally determined according to the living room area, so that the proportion of lamp size and living room size is harmonious. But with the increase of lamp holders, lamp prices have doubled.
So the chandelier is recommended. The shape of fan blade is dispersed, so that the overall size of the lamp is larger, and the 1.2-meter-diameter fan blade can be used in a large space of about 20 square meters; the wind speed is adjustable, when the summer is not too hot, the fan is not only energy-saving, but also more comfortable than the air conditioning; the fan can be set to reverse, for example, when the hot pot is opened, it can speed up the air flow, and people will not feel the wind.
It should be noted that the ceiling fan lamp needs to reserve two wires to connect the fan and the lamp separately; if only one wire is reserved, the remote control circuit can be used to control it.
Lamps consisting of lampshade, bracket and base are easy to move. It is generally arranged in the living room and rest area, with the sofa, tea table with the use. It is used for local lighting and creating corner atmosphere.
Lights are directly projected downward, suitable for reading and other activities requiring concentration. Lighting can also be made upward for background lighting. Adjusting the height of the light source can change the diameter of the diaphragm, thus controlling the intensity of light, create a hazy effect.
The floor lamp beside the sofa should be able to adjust the height and the angle of the lampshade, generally 1.2-1.3 meters high. It can not only provide supplementary lighting for reading, but also alleviate the eye irritation of TV screen when watching TV.
It is a small lamp placed on the desk, dining table, etc. It is used for reading and working. The illumination range is small and concentrated, so it will not affect the light of the whole room.
A semi-circular opaque lampshade is commonly used for table lamps. A semi-circular lampshade is used for focusing light. The inner wall of the lampshade has a reflective effect, so that the light can be focused on the designated area.
Rocker arm table lamp is recommended, and both arms are more convenient to adjust than single arm. It is necessary to ensure that the inner wall and light source of the lamp shade cannot be seen when people are looking horizontally in normal sitting posture.
Considering the requirement of "eye protection", the color temperature of the lamp should be below 5000K, which is higher than this index. The "blue light hazard" is serious. The color rendering index should be higher than 90, which is lower than this index. It is easy to cause visual fatigue.
"Blue light hazard" means that the blue light contained in the spectrum can damage the retina. But all the spectra of light, including sunlight, contain blue light. If blue light is completely removed, the color rendering index of light will be greatly reduced, resulting in visual fatigue far greater than the harm of blue light.
It is a small lamp installed around the ceiling, inside the wall or above the furniture. It is characterized by a high concentration of light, which directly irradiates the objects that need to be emphasized. The contrast between light and shadow is strong, so as to highlight the key points.
Spotlights are widely used: It can be used in conjunction with the main lamp or in the space without the main lamp, but it should not be too much to prevent overload and aesthetic circuit; it can be used between furniture partitions to show decorations on the partition, etc.
Spotlight is divided into track type, point-hanging type and embedded type: track type and point-hanging type are installed on the wall and roof surface, and embedded type is generally installed in the ceiling.
Flammable materials such as wool fabrics cannot be illuminated at close range because of the high heat of LED beads; LED uses 12V DC power supply, and needs to install transformers, or choose a spotlight with transformers. Poor quality transformers will lead to voltage instability, burning out the LED, and even cause spotlight explosion.
It is a lamp embedded in the ceiling. The ceiling thickness is over 15 centimeters. Of course, there are also external tube lamps. The concentrating ability of the tube lamp is stronger than that of the ceiling lamp and the pendant lamp, and weaker than that of the spotlight.
Some people often can't distinguish between barrel lamp and spotlight, they are not very different, mainly depending on the need for use: barrel lamp is diffuse, mainly used for lighting, the light angle is generally fixed downward; spotlight is highly focused, mainly used to foil the atmosphere. The light angle can be adjusted at any time according to the layout of the home.
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